*this is meant as a study guide that was created from lecture videos and is used to help you gain an understanding of what is a processing unit.
- Stored data on hard drive, cd rom, cloud
- Take data and put/store into RAM
- (Processing process) input on how to process data
- Output (monitor, printer) used to decide how data is being manipulated and how we want
- Return data to storage
System unit- where storage and processing is done, inside is motherboard, cpu, ram, hard drive, optical network connections, everything else that isn’t a system unit is a peripheral. Understanding the core processing steps is crucial to answering what is a processing unit. Visit makeuseof to learn about core processors.
Monitor- output, LED or CRT monitors
Keyboard and mouse- input
Speakers, printer, scanner- output
Universal Serial Bus- can be used for anything
Ethernet- used by networks that are wired, rj45
External Sata/ESata- for external hard drive, with super fast connection, used for removable hard drive
Spdif- fiber optic cables, used for all things audio, high quality home theater sound
Digital Visual Interface/DVI- primary video output for systems today, for monitor or projector
HDMI(high definition multimedia interface)- carries audio and video, unique
Mini Audio Jacks- 1/8th or Mini RCA Jack, used as direct connection to microphone or speakers
Power- PC power connector used to get juice to your computer
Front Panel connections- used for convenience
Firewire- losing to USB, but works the same, video camera uses firewire
Legacy ports/types of connections- old connections not used as much, found on old motherboard
Dsub connections- ports with visual holes or pins
Ps2 connectors- used for keyboards on bottom, on top for mice, USB has replaced
Serial port- 9 pin male DB connector, grandaddy of all input and output
Parallel Port- 25 pin, DSub connector, original connections on IBM computers, used for printers
VGA connector- DSub, oldest type of video connector there ever was
Open the case to get the interior of the system,
Power supply, video card/graphics card, RAM (piece of ram is called a stick), underneath fan is CPU, motherboard (everything that is the computer hooks directly to indirectly to the motherboard), optical drives (blu ray, cd, dvd), Hard Drive, front panel connectors to make connections in the front work, power and reset button connectors
The CPU is the central processing unit, which is often referred to as the brains of your computer, it is just a powerful calculator. We assume when you ask what is a processing unit that you are referring to the CPU and not the entire Core Processing.
AMD or Intel are main manufacturers
Microarchitecture- defines features, can make a lot of different types of CPU’s
CPU Z by CPUID, free program used to find information about CPU
CPU Speeds and Cores
CPU speed is measured in hertz/cycles per second, and determined by the speed of the motherboard and the clock multiplier
When working with CPU, there is rated speed ex. 1.6 gigahertz, 1.6 billion cranks per second. System crystal- what is cranking the CPU for speed, piece of quartz that is oscillating at a certain speed.
CPU can run much faster than your motherboard
Multiplier- CPU will take motherboard speed and multiplies it
Overclocker board Motherboards- push CPU faster than its rated speed,
When you run at high clock rates, we don’t have tech to do it very well, or it’s expensive.
Hyper-threading- when you can make 1 core, look like 2 cores for the computer, use task manager performance tab to see CPU usage history, ONLY FOR INTEL.
Cache- takes a little bit of what we need and places closer to us in case we need it.
Programs by default live on your hardware. You could run programs with hardware, but it will be very slow. RAM is faster but still slower than CPU itself. To take advantage of CPU, we use a little bit of RAM into the CPU, this is called the cache or static ram.
Dynamic RAM is the typical RAM you would think of.
Problem with cache is that the more you have, the harder it is to find stuff in it. Runs at same speed of CPU, but very small. Smaller cache is faster, but bigger can hold more information.
One way to combat this is to use Level 2 Cache which is half the speed of the CPU, but a lot bigger. Instead of the RAM handing it to the CPU Level 1 cache which is the fastest and smallest, it will be sent to the Level 2 cache. On most systems today, there is also a Level 3 cache. It runs at motherboard speed or a but faster, although it is big, in the megabyte size.
32 bit vs 64 bit processing
The cpu has to talk to RAM, the CPU has to be able to pick a specific byte from the RAM to load the code and run it. The address bus is used to do this and is a special set of wires. They are either 64 or 32 wires dedicated to addressing memories. Each different 1’s and 0’s point to a different byte of RAM. We are moving from a 32 bit RAM to solely 64 bit RAM.
How to find out if you have 32 or 64 bit RAM- start -> computer -> properties.
When it comes to Windows vista or 7 they come with both 32 or 64 bit edition. 64 bit is the way to go. 64 bit CPU enables you to use more than 4GB of RAM.
2 big processor extensions is virtualization support, you have a computer within a computer. Virtualization takes a lot of work on your CPU.
Integrated GPU is a video card built into the CPU itself, which allows you to have smaller systems and use less power. It is all built in. Integrated GPU can replace dedicated video cards in many systems.
You need to put cpu into motherboard either by soldering it to the motherboard, cpu packages and sockets allow you to buy a motherboard that allows you to switch CPU’s. CPU sockets are either LGA with ZIF and pressure plate on top or PGA sitting on a ZIF.
All AMD Sockets are PGA and Intel are LGA.
Intel LGA 775 (lands), replaced by LGA 1156 for mainstream systems i3, i5, i7 and for the higher end systems which could support a lot of DDR3 and was used on the core 1366 for i7. LGA 1156 Replaced by LGA 1155. LGA 1366 replaced by LGA 2011. Intel Socket 1150 supports multiple CPU and PCIE devices.
Microarchitecture- a core piece of what we want the version of next CPU to do. In general when a new microarchitecture appears, a new socket will most likely come along.
AMD Socket AM2 had 940 pins and ran primarily on avalon 64 processors, hyper transport capability and DDr2.
Socket AM3 942 pins, supported athlon II, phenom II, ddr3. Power and speed improvements.
AMD separates sockets based on graphics capability, APU is for better graphics and in AMD FM Sockets.
FM1 Sockets with 905 pins. FM2 has 904 pins. FM2+ 906 pins.
Installing a CPU
A CPU can only go in one way. After placing the CPU, place the fan. Make sure you have thermal compound or heat dope between the fan and CPU.
Cooling Your PC
Use fans to keep things cool on cpu, graphic cards, case fans. SpeedFan, asus probe II
Passive liquid cooling- goes through CPU mount, heated up and runs hot fluid through a radiator.., common to use
Active Liquid Cooling- “Refrigerator” that is built into the case, done by strange people
Liquid cooling can be difficult to install but rewarding in cooling down your PC
Visit Lifewire to learn about RAM.
RAM: sticks and speeds / “stick of ram”
RAM- temp storage where programs run on your system.
Capacity- how much ram is in my hand
Speed- how fast is this ram
DRAM- every bit is stored with capacitor and transistor
SDRAM- distinct, 168 pin dual inline memory module or DIM. S in sdram is synchronous. Has a clock speed. Had to run off the same speed as the motherboard. 2 notches
DDR SDRAM- 184 DIM package, single notch. Took motherboard speed and doubled it. PC Speed= ex. DDR speed X 8 is PC1600.
DDR2- 240 pin DIMM, notch in different place. Like DDR SDRAM, but also doubled clock speed.
DDR3- Most common form today, 240 pin DIMM, achieves speed by quadrupling the bus. Ex. 100 megahertz X 4 = 400, double for DDR3 – 400 X 2 = DDR3 800, times this by 4 to get PC Speed
Refer to the motherboard to ensure you can handle the specific RAM capacity. RAM Capacity is also additive.
Other Types of RAM
RAMBUS- long gone, came out when SDRAM did, first double pumped RAM, 184 pin RIMM with 2 notches. You had to install it in 2’s. CRIMM needed to be placed for any open sockets.
Single sided RAM were more popular. Double sided Memory were also great and popular, although if your motherboard could support it.
ECC/Parity RAM- memory with extra chips designed for air correction. They look like regular RAM. these types of RAM can only be on motherboards that accept this type of RAM.
SODIMM- invented for laptops, regular old RAM of the same type discussed earlier. You have to make sure you have the right size for your laptop. 100, 144, 200 pin sizes or 204 which is unique to DDR3.
Easy, simple, great benefit
Get motherboard book for your pc
Dual 2, Quad 4, or Triple 3 channels are the amount of sticks needed to be placed in a certain PC.
Be careful when installing RAM. Ensure when you are learning what is a processing unit that you fully grasp what RAM is.
Problems- the computer may not boot up or you won’t see the RAM that is just added. You will not destroy the motherboard for trying different RAM, it just won’t work.
Installation errors or random errors.
Checking RAM- computer, right click -> properties -> installed memory (RAM)
Or use CPUZ -> SPD -> check each slot for what stick of RAM is in.
When RAM dies, Meantime between failure, RAM should take decades to failure. May get blue screen or freezes, when RAM dies. You can either replace RAM itself or use memory testing tools. To test your memory, Use either memtest86 if you have before Windows 7 or older. You have to boot the program! If you have Windows 7 or newer then go to control panel -> administrative tools -> windows memory diagnostic -> restart and check problems.
Computer needs a way to query the chip that stores data from peripherals such as keyboard. Also it keeps the time when your computer is turned off. BIOS is stored on a ROM chip.
CMOS setup- stores changeable information.
POST- CPU goes out through the motherboard and makes an announcement, “hey if you can hear me, check yourself out” and all the peripherals go through a process to establish if they are in good order or not to report back to the CPU.
Beep Codes- break POST into 2 pieces. When you hear a beep code, it is when your video card isn’t working.
When you don’t have any RAM your computer will make a strange noise that is ongoing.
What if your computer doesn’t start? Use a POSTcard, which snaps into your computer and give 2 hexadecimal readouts. POSTcards should be under 100 if you need one.
On Screen Errors
System Setup or CMOS Setup
How to get to system setup- Boot your computer up -> watch screen and press specific key quickly
Visit PC World for more information on getting into your BIOS.
Clearing the System Setup/CMOS
If you need to delete the user/supervisor passwords off computer Clear CMOS Jumper -> pull it out of motherboard -> leave for thirty seconds -> system Setup will refresh.
If your clock in the computer is starting to slow down, then your system has a battery that is going down.
Updating and flashing the BIOS
Taking info on BIOS chip and rewriting the code on it. Go into system setup to do this. Or you can contact the manufacturer or go into a tool specific to the OS.